The aim of this paper is to review the relationship between COVID-19 and nutrition and to discuss to most up-to-date dietary supplements proposed for COVID-19 treatment and prevention. Nutrition and nutritional dysregulations, such as obesity and malnutrition, are prominent risk factors for severe COVID-19. These factors exert anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory effects on the immune system, thus exacerbating or reducing the immunological response against the virus. As for the nutritional habits, the Western diet induces a chronic inflammatory state, whereas the Mediterranean diet exerts anti-inflammatory effects and has been proposed for ameliorating COVID-19 evolution and symptoms. Several vaccines have been researched and commercialized for COVID-19 prevention, whereas several drugs, although clinically tested, have not shown promising effects. To compensate for the lack of treatment, several supplements have been recommended for preventing or ameliorating COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, it is critical to review the dietary supplements proposed for COVID-19 treatment. Supplements containing α-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol exhibited promising effects in several clinical trials and reduced the severity of the outcomes and the duration of the infection. Moreover, a supplement containing hydroxytyrosol, acetyl L-carnitine, and vitamins B, C, and D improved the symptoms of patients with post-COVID syndrome.
Bonetti G, Medori MC, Fioretti F, Farronato M, Nodari S, Lorusso L, Tartaglia GM, Farronato G, Bellinato F, Gisondi P, Connelly ST, Bertelli M. Dietary supplements for the management of COVID-19 symptoms. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022 Oct 17;63(2 Suppl 3):E221-E227. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2764.