Biophysical Studies and In Vitro Effects on Tumor Cell Lines of Cannabidiol and Its Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

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Phytocannabinoids possess anticancer properties, as established in vitro and in vivo. However, they are characterized by high lipophilicity. To improve the properties of cannabidiol (CBD), such as solubility, stability, and bioavailability, CBD inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs) might be employed, offering targeted, faster, and prolonged CBD release. The aim of the present study is to investigate the in vitro effects of CBD and its inclusion complexes in randomly methylated β-CD (RM-β-CD) and 2-hyroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD). The enhanced solubility of CBD upon complexation with CDs was examined by phase solubility study, and the structure of the inclusion complexes of CBD in 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-CD (DM-β-CD) and 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-CD (TM-β-CD) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The structural investigation was complemented by molecular dynamics simulations. The cytotoxicity of CBD and its complexes with RM-β-CD and HP-β-CD was tested on two cell lines, the A172 glioblastoma and TE671 rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Methylated β-CDs exhibited the best inclusion ability for CBD. A dose-dependent effect of CBD on both cancer cell lines and improved efficacy of the CBD-CDs complexes were verified. Thus, cannabinoids may be considered in future clinical trials beyond their palliative use as possible inhibitors of cancer growth.

RMSD from the first frame of the trajectory for encapsulated CBD (green) in DM-β-CD (black) as a function of MD simulation time and representative snapshots of the CBD/DM-β-CD inclusion complex at 0, 10, and 18 ns.

Kyriaki Hatziagapiou, Kostas Bethanis, Eleni Koniari, Elias Christoforides, Olti Nikola, Athena Andreou, Aimilia Mantzou, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George I Lambrou (2022) Biophysical Studies and In Vitro Effects of Tumor Cell Lines of Cannabidiol and Its Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes. Pharmaceutics. 14(4):706. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14040706.

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