Starches are a major constituent of staple foods and are the main source of energy in the human diet (55-70%). In the gastrointestinal tract, starches are hydrolyzed into glucose by α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which leads to a postprandial glucose elevation. High levels of blood glucose levels over sustained periods may promote type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. Increasing consumption of starchy foods with a lower glycemic index may therefore contribute to improved health. In this paper, the preparation and properties of several starch-based nanoparticles (SNPs) and cyclodextrins (CDs) derivatives are reviewed. In particular, the various mechanisms responsible for the ability of these edible nanomaterials to modulate glucose release and the gut microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract are discussed. The probiotic functions are achieved through encapsulation and protection of prebiotics or bioactive components in foods or the human gut. This review therefore provides valuable information that could be used to design functional foods for improving human health and wellbeing.
Yuwan Liu, Chao Qiu, Xiaojing Li, David Julian McClements, Chenxi Wang, Zhiheng Zhang, Aiquan Jiao, Jie Long, Kunfu Zhu, Jinpeng Wang, Zhengyu Jin (2022) Application of starch-based nanoparticles and cyclodextrin for prebiotics delivery and controlled glucose release in the human gut: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1-12.