Oral Carcinoma and Therapeutic Approaches of Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Concepts, Incidence, Molecular Mechanism to Emerging Treatment Techniques

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Review [1]. Oral carcinoma is the most general, with a large fatality rate and aggressive cancer that can cause metastasis as it attacks other tissues. The prevalence of carcinoma is a multistep method, requiring the collection of many hereditary changes influenced by a patient’s hereditary predisposition and environmental effects, including nicotine, alcoholic beverages, chronic infection, and viral contamination. The data were searched using focal keywords, including oral cancer, molecular mechanisms, treatments, and nanotechnology, through various search engines and the Pubmed database. There are two major types of carcinogenesis genetic manipulation, i.e., tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Tumor suppression genes can be inactivated throughout genetic phenomena, such as mutations, loss of heterozygosity, deletion, or epigenetic alterations such as methylation of DNA or dynamic modification of chromatin. Oncogenes can be activated through overexpression due to gene amplification, enhanced transcription, or a variation in structure due to mutation, leading to enhanced transforming activity. The current review focused on enhancing cancer therapy techniques using nanomedicines, including nanoscale medicine transfer systems’ design, characterization, production, and utilization. Instruments for diagnostic investigations and medical devices are for nanotechnologiesbased therapies are polymeric nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, gold nanoparticles, and cyclodextrin complexes, which are promising apparatuses for symptomatic tests and helpful treatment gadgets.

This review focuses on graphene nanoparticles not on CDs. Some papers on CD applications which would have been worth to mention: lidocaine/HPBCD [2], chlorin e6/HPBCD [3], and a review [4].

[1] Dan, S., Upadhyay, S.K., Girdhar, M., Mandal, M., Sakshi (2022) Oral carcinoma and therapeutic approaches of nanotechnology: From fundamental concepts, incidence, molecular mechanism to emerging treatment techniques. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry 12(3), 3900-3937. https://doi.org/10.33263/BRIAC123.39003937

[2] Luiz E N Ferreira, Gabriela B M Antunes, Bruno V Muniz, Jonny Burga-Sánchez, Nathalie F S de Melo, Francisco C Groppo, Leonardo F Fraceto, Maria C Volpato (2018) Effects of lidocaine and the inclusion complex with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on cell viability and proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 70, 874–882, https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12917

[3] Shubhajit Paul, Paul Wan Sia Heng, Lai Wah Chan (2016) pH-dependent complexation of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin with chlorin e6: effect on solubility and aggregation in relation to photodynamic efficacy. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 68, 439–449, https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12535

[4] Gharat, S. A., Momin, M., & Bhavsar, C. (2016). Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Current Treatment Strategies and Nanotechnology-Based Approaches for Prevention and Therapy. Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 33(4), 363–400. https://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2016016272

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