The use of CDs in nasal formulations allowed obtaining versatile drug delivery systems intended for local and systemic effects, as well as for nose-to-brain transport of drugs. In vitro and in vivo models currently employed are suitable to analyze the effects of CDs in nasal formulations. In general, CDs contribute to increase the drug solubility in water and modulate their permeability across the nasal mucosa. In terms of the systemic effects, the presence of CDs in nasal formulations has been demonstrated to increase the bioavailability of sedatives and drugs against hypercalcemia. As far as the central effects are concerned, different types of CDs in nasal formulations appeared to induce an increase in drug uptake in different regions of the brain. In vitro and in vivo models are currently suitable to analyze the effects produced by the presence of CDs in nasal formulations. Interesting perspectives, however, appear to simulate the olfactory mucosa in vitro.
Several examples are discussed based on 103 references.
Rassu, G.; Sorrenti, M.; Catenacci, L.; Pavan, B.; Ferraro, L.; Gavini, E.; Bonferoni, M.C.; Giunchedi, P.; Dalpiaz, A. Versatile Nasal Application of Cyclodextrins: Excipients and/or Actives? Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1180. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081180