Cyclodextrins are proposed as new and sustainable materials for passive sampling of lipophilic marine toxins. Two applicability scenarios have been tested. First, disks containing β-cyclodextrin-hexamethylene diisocyanate (β-CD-HDI) and β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin (β-CD-EPI) polymers were immersed in microalgae (Prorocentrum lima) cultures for different days (2, 12 and 40). LC-MS/MS analysis showed capture of free okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) by cyclodextrins at contents that increased with immersion time. Cyclodextrins resulted more efficient in capturing DTX1 than OA. In a second experiment, disks containing β-CD-HDI, β-CD-EPI, γ-CD-HDI and γ-CD-EPI were deployed in harbor waters of El Masnou (NW Mediterranean Sea) during a Dinophysis sacculus bloom in February 2020. Free OA and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) were captured by cyclodextrins. Toxin contents were higher at sampling points and sampling weeks with higher D. sacculus cell abundance. In this case, PTX2 capture with cyclodextrins was more efficient than OA capture. Therefore, cyclodextrins have provided information regarding the toxin profile of a P. lima strain and the spatial and temporal dynamics of a D. sacculus bloom, proven efficient as passive sampling materials for environmental monitoring.
Mònica Campàs, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Charlotta Wirén, Carles Alcaraz, María Rey, Anna Safont, Jorge Diogène, Mabel Torréns, Alex Fragoso, Cyclodextrin polymers as passive sampling materials for lipophilic marine toxins in Prorocentrum lima cultures and a Dinophysis sacculus bloom in the NW Mediterranean Sea, Chemosphere, 285, 2021, 131464, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131464.