Cyclodextrins (CDs) are known for their ability to extract lipid components from synthetic and biological membranes and therefore to induce an increase of membrane permeability. However, the effect of cholesterol (CHOL) content in the membrane on the CD permeabilizing effect was not considered yet. Given that an increase in CHOL content reduces the membrane permeability, the aim of this work was to reveal how CHOL would modulate the CDs effect on the membrane. Hence, liposomes made of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and various CHOL contents (DPPC/CHOL 100:10, 100:25, 100:50, and 100:100) encapsulating the hydrophilic fluorophore, sulforhodamine B (SRB), were prepared and exposed to the native CDs (α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD) and four β-CD derivatives: the randomly methylated-β-CD (RAMEB), the low methylated-β-CD (CRYSMEB), the hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD) and the sulfobutyl ether-β-CD (SBE-β-CD) at different CD/DPPC molar ratios (1:1, 10:1, and 100:1). The membrane permeability was monitored following the release of SRB with time. The results demonstrated that the CDs effect on the membrane depends on the CD type, CD concentration, and membrane CHOL content. The investigated CDs exhibited an instantaneous permeabilizing effect promoting vesicle leakage of SRB from the various membranes; this effect increased with CDs concentration. Among the studied CDs, α-CD, β-CD, and RAMEB were the most permeabilizing CDs on the different membranes. Similar modifications of SRB release from the various liposomal formulations were obtained with HP-β-CD, CRYSMEB, and SBE-β-CD. γ-CD was the less potent CD in affecting the membrane permeability. The CDs effect also depended on the CHOL content: at the CD/DPPC molar ratio (100:1), RAMEB and β-CD considerably permeabilized the membrane of high CHOL content (50%, 100%) while the remaining CDs showed a decreasing permeabilizing effect upon CHOL content membrane increase.
Nasr, G.; Greige-Gerges, H.; Fourmentin, S.; Elaissari, A.; Khreich, N. Cyclodextrins permeabilize DPPC liposome membranes: a focus on cholesterol content, cyclodextrin type, and concentration. Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2023, 19, 1570–1579. doi:10.3762/bjoc.19.115