Synthesis and potential applications of cyclodextrin-based metal–organic frameworks: a review

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Metal–organic frameworks are porous polymeric materials formed by linking metal ions with organic bridging ligands. Metal–organic frameworks are used as sensors, catalysts for organic transformations, biomass conversion, photovoltaics, electrochemical applications, gas storage and separation, and photocatalysis. Nonetheless, many actual metal–organic frameworks present limitations such as toxicity of preparation reagents and components, which make frameworks unusable for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here, the structure, synthesis and properties of cyclodextrin-based metal–organic frameworks that could be used in bioapplications are reviewed. Synthetic methods include vapor diffusion, microwave-assisted, hydro/solvothermal, and ultrasound techniques. The vapor diffusion method can produce cyclodextrin-based metal–organic framework crystals with particle sizes ranging from 200 nm to 400 μm. Applications comprise food packaging, drug delivery, sensors, adsorbents, gas separation, and membranes. Cyclodextrin-based metal–organic frameworks showed loading efficacy of the bioactive compounds ranging from 3.29 to 97.80%.

Cyclodextrin-based metal–organic frameworks are composed of biocompatible metal ions including calcium, potassium, and titanium with cyclodextrin, including α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin through well-organized metal–ligand coordination bonds.


Xu, Y., Rashwan, A.K., Osman, A.I. et al. Synthesis and potential applications of cyclodextrin-based metal–organic frameworks: a review. Environ Chem Lett 21, 447–477 (2023).

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