Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency remains a challenge in cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic pancreatitis, and biliary atresia. Liposomes and cyclodextrins can enhance their bioavailability, thus this multi-center randomized placebo-controlled trial compared three-month supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins in the form of liposomes or cyclodextrins to medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in pancreatic-insufficient CF patients. The cyclodextrin formulation was based on γ-cyclodextrin and included microcrystalline cellulose, a common food additive.
The daily doses were as follows: 2000 IU of retinyl palmitate, 4000 IU of vitamin D3, 200 IU of RRR-α-tocopherol, and 200 µg of vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7, with vitamin E given in soybean oil instead of liposomes. All participants received 4 mg of β-carotene and 1.07 mg of vitamin K1 to ensure compliance with the guidelines. The primary outcome was the change from the baseline of all-trans-retinol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Out of 75 randomized patients (n = 28 liposomes, n = 22 cyclodextrins, and n = 25 MCT), 67 completed the trial (89%; n = 26 liposomes, n = 18 cyclodextrins, and n = 23 MCT) and had a median age of 22 years (IQR 19–28), body mass index of 20.6 kg/m2 [18.4–22.0], and forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 65% (44–84%). The liposomal formulation of vitamin A was associated with the improved evolution of serum all-trans-retinol compared to the control (median +1.7 ng/mL (IQR −44.3–86.1) vs. −38.8 ng/mL (−71.2–6.8), p = 0.028). Cyclodextrins enhanced the bioavailability of vitamin D3 (+9.0 ng/mL (1.0–17.0) vs. +3.0 ng/mL (−4.0–7.0), p = 0.012) and vitamin E (+4.34 µg/mL (0.33–6.52) vs. −0.34 µg/mL (−1.71–2.15), p = 0.010). Liposomes may augment the bioavailability of vitamin A and cyclodextrins may strengthen the supplementation of vitamins D3 and E relative to MCT in pancreatic-insufficient CF but further studies are required to assess liposomal vitamin E (German Clinical Trial Register number DRKS00014295, funded from EU and Norsa Pharma).
Nowak, J.K.; Sobkowiak, P.; Drzymała-Czyż, S.; Krzyżanowska-Jankowska, P.; Sapiejka, E.; Skorupa, W.; Pogorzelski, A.; Nowicka, A.; Wojsyk-Banaszak, I.; Kurek, S.; Zielińska-Psuja, B.; Lisowska, A.; Walkowiak, J. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation Using Liposomes, Cyclodextrins, or Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4554. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124554
Picture credit: Braitwvaite et al. Int. J. Pharm. 2017, 532, 90-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.08.109