This review discusses the basic properties of the different cyclodextrin derivatives, their potential in antiviral formulations, and the prevention and treatment of viral infections. The biologically active new cyclodextrin derivatives are also discussed.The literature statistics gives interesting information.
This review with 251 references has attempted to summarize the current knowledge on the interaction between different virucides and CDs. The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a boom in publications on viruses and resulted in a constant and rapid change in the information available, with often contradictory results week after week, even in peer-reviewed journals.
Bioavailability improvements of drugs are the principal purpose of CD complexations, and these property improvements often reduce side effects, too. Less than half of the just over 100 approved antiviral molecules have been tested with cyclodextrins. Not all virucides are appropriate to interact with native CDs, but the substitution of the CD hydroxyls can expand the CD cavity, converting them into suitable hosts. The statistically derived CDs, HP- and SBβCD, are the most commonly used host molecules, as they are also parenteral drug carriers. While oral and topical formulations can use both native and methylated CDs, CD polymers and nanosponges are mainly suitable for topical applications.
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, many old drugs have been repurposed, and most of them have no CD history. The new antiviral molecules usually have a high MW, which provides a favorable host-to-guest mass ratio, while their complex structures often contain a suitable moiety to interact with CDs.
The interaction of CDs with peptides, proteins, and nucleotides makes CDs suitable adjuvants for vaccines or drug vectors, opening new research directions in antiviral therapy.
László Jicsinszky, Katia Martina, Giancarlo Cravotto (2021) Cyclodextrins in the antiviral therapy, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 102589, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2021.102589