Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem that causes serious economic burden for countries and patients, besides having fatal consequences. Patients with CKD are more prone to cardiovascular diseases, premature death and their life quality is severely limited due to treatments such as dialysis.
Tryptophan, which is found in food, is converted into indole by gut microbiota and if this cannot be removed from the body, dangerous uremic toxins could be formed. For example, indoxyl sulfate, metabolized from indole in the liver is a uremic toxin. The removal of indol is therefore of utmost importance.
Four nanosponges were compared:
NS1: cross-linked with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) in molar ratio 1:4 βCD:PMDA
NS2: cross-linked with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in molar ratio 1:4 βCD:TDI at 70°C.
NS3: cross-linked with carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in molar ratio 1:4 βCD:CDI
NS4: cross-linked with citric acid (CA) in molar ratio 1:8 βCD:CA.
Three of the four nanosponges were shown to be effective in adsorption of indole from aquous solution as well as from simulated gastric fluid (only NS3 showed lower sorption). Especially, toluene diisocyanate cross-linked CD-nanosponges had a very high indole adsorption capacity of over 90% and is promising in cleansing the body from toxic compounds from food or oral ingestion. These nanosponges, which are planned to be administered orally, maintained the adsorbed indole for at least six hours given their high adsorption capacity.
Varan, C., Anceschi, A., Sevli, S., Bruni, N., Giraudo, L., Bilgiç, E.Korkosuz, P., Iskit, A.B., Trotta, F., Bilensoy, E. (2020). Preparation and Characterization of Cyclodextrin Nanosponges for Organic Toxic Molecule Removal. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 119485. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119485