Tumor immunotherapy, compared with other treatment strategies, has the notable advantage of a long-term therapeutic effect for preventing metastasis and the recurrence of tumors, thus holding great potential for the future of advanced tumor therapy. However, due to the poor water solubility of immune modulators and immune escape properties of tumor cells, the treatment efficiency of immunotherapy is usually significantly reduced. Cyclodextrin (CD) has been repeatedly highlighted to be probably one of the most investigated building units for cancer therapy due to its elegant integration of an internal hydrophobic hollow cavity and an external hydrophilic outer surface. The application of CD for immunotherapy provides new opportunities for overcoming the aforementioned obstacles. This paper provides a comprehensive summary on the application of CD for immunotherapy with an emphasis on the role, function, and reported strategies of CD in mediating immunotherapy. This review summarizes the research progress made in using CD for tumor immunotherapy, which will facilitate the generation of various CD-based immunotherapeutic delivery systems with superior anticancer efficacy.
The main topics nclude:
- CDs themselves have no immune stimulation effect but act as immunemodulator of polyphenyl thiophosphate oligonucleotides.
- CD-complexed small molecular immunomodulators show enhanced targeting and penetration in anticancer vaccines
- Immunotherapy and chemotherapy
- Immunotherapy and photothermal therapy
- Immunotherapy and phoodynamic therapy
In tumor immunotherapy, CD analogues can be used as immune drugs, or they can be functionalized to form complexes with immune drugs that are originally poorly water-soluble, improving the water solubility of immunotherapeutic drugs to enhance their efficacy. In addition, CDs can also be modified to introduce targeting groups, so that immune drugs can bind specifically to target cells and improve the precision of immunotherapy. In addition, CDs can also carry immune escape or immunosuppressive drugs while encapsulating immune drugs, so that the shortcomings of immunotherapy can be improved and the effect of immunotherapy drugs can be enhanced!
The application of cyclodextrins in tumor vaccines also provides a new therapeutic direction for immunotherapy.
Wei, X.; Yu, C.-Y.; Wei, H. Application of Cyclodextrin for Cancer Immunotherapy. Molecules 2023, 28, 5610. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28145610