Cyclodextrins are extensively employed in drug delivery systems like inclusion complexes, metal-organic frameworks, functionalized or PEGylated conjugates, and other nanocarrier systems such as nanosponges or hydrogel nanoparticles for targeted effect or prolonged release action. Applications of CDs explore from drug-loaded nanocarrier systems useful for disease conditions (such as cancer, diabetes, and bacterial infections, etc.) to supramolecular chemistry, diagnostics, imaging, biosensors, and medical devices. However, there is a limited data and information on the adverse effects caused by cyclodextrins and their toxicities in the medical field. Various in-vitro and ex-vivo toxic effects such as cytotoxicity, ototoxicity, etc. as well as the adverse and toxic effects depend on the role of administration of cyclodextrins. Cytotoxicity, ototoxicity, etc. are produced with similar mechanisms, while the toxicities of drugs are also significantly enhanced due to increased solubility and permeability of the actives across the tissue membranes as well as the combined effect (synergism) of the characteristics in actives with CDs. This review article focuses on the new challenges faced in cyclodextrin-based delivery systems and the various toxicities induced by them.
Francesco Trotta, Thorsteinn Loftsson, R.S.Gaud, RiddhiTrivedi, Pravin Shendec: Integration of cyclodextrins and associated toxicities: A roadmap for high quality biomedical applications. Carbohydrate Polymers 2022, 119880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.119880