Delayed excretion of methotrexate (MTX) was observed in a pediatric patient on high-dose MTX therapy in response to a change in the concomitant dosage of voriconazole from oral to intravenous. As the intravenous, but not the oral formulation of voriconazole includes sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD), which has an anionic residue, it was hypothesized that SBECD inhibits the renal excretion of anionic compounds.
To check this hypothesis the potential inhibitory effects of SBECD on renal excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) was evaluated, which is eliminated in urine via organic anion transport systems. PSP was administered intravenously to rats at 2.5 and 25 mg/kg with or without SBECD pretreatment (320 mg/kg).
The plasma concentration of PSP at the dosage of 2.5 mg/kg were comparable between control and SBECD groups. On the other hand, at 25 mg/kg the elimination of PSP was delayed. The clearance of PSP at the dosage of 25 mg/kg was 9.71 ± 1.65 and 4.13 ± 0.76 mL/min/kg in control and SBECD groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This suggested that SBECD partly inhibits the renal excretion of anionic drugs.
The present case report discusses the delayed elimination of MTX in high dose therapy and possible mechanism involving SBECD as an excipient in concomitant drugs. It seems better to avoid choosing injection containing SBECD for patients undergoing HD-MTX treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm the inhibitory effects of SBECD on the renal excretion of MTX, especially in high-dose regimens.
Watahiki, D., Saito, D., Nishida, N. et al. Voriconazole injection may induce delayed methotrexate excretion: a case report and experimental study. J Pharm Health Care Sci 8, 9 (2022).