The advantages of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) include its high solubility, ability to form inclusion complexes with various poorly water-soluble molecules, and favorable toxicological profile; thus, γ-CD is an attractive functional excipient widely used in many industrial settings. Unfortunately, the high cost of γ-CD caused by the low activity and stability of γ-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (γ-CGTase) has hampered large-scale production and application.
This study reports the in vivo one-step production of immobilized γ-CGTase decorated on the surface of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) nanogranules by the N-terminal fusion of γ-CGTase to PHA synthase via a designed linker. The immobilized γ-CGTase-PHA nanogranules showed outstanding cyclization activity of 61.25 ± 3.94 U/mg (γ-CGTase protein) and hydrolysis activity of 36,273.99 ± 1892.49 U/mg, 44.74% and 18.83% higher than that of free γ-CGTase, respectively. The nanogranules also exhibited wider optimal pH (cyclization activity 7.0–9.0, hydrolysis activity 10.0–11.0) and temperature (55–60 °C) ranges and remarkable thermo- and pH-stability, expanding its utility to adapt to wider and more severe reaction conditions than the free enzyme. A high yield of CDs (22.73%) converted from starch and a high ratio (90.86%) of γ-CD in the catalysate were achieved at pH 9.0 and 50 °C for 10 h with 1 mmol/L K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ added to the reaction system. Moreover, γ-CGTase-PHA beads can be used at least eight times, retaining 82.04% of its initial hydrolysis activity and 75.73% of its initial cyclization activity.
Duan M, Wang Y, Tan D, Yang G, Deng Y, Ran G, Li J. Economical synthesis of γ-cyclodextrin catalyzed by oriented cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase displayed on bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate nanogranules. Microb Cell Fact. 2023 Sep 13;22(1):181. doi: 10.1186/s12934-023-02191-2.