Neuroinflammation occurs early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The initial stage of AD is related to glial dysfunction, which contributes to impairment of Aβ clearance and disruption of synaptic connection. CEBPβ, a member of the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) family, modulates the expression of inflammation-associated genes, and its expression is elevated in brains undergoing degeneration and injured brains. However, the mechanism underlying CEBPβ-mediated chronic inflammation in AD is unclear. In this study, it was observed that increases in the levels of nuclear CEBPβ facilitated the interaction of CEBPβ with the NFκB p65 subunit, increasing the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines in the APP/PS1 mouse brain. Oral administration of nanocarrier-packaged carnosic acid (CA) reduced the aberrant activation of microglia and astrocytes and diminished mature IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 production in the APP/PS1 mouse brain. CA administration reduced β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ameliorated cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice. It was observed that CA blocked the interaction of CEBPβ with NFκB p65, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that CA reduced the transcription of the NFκB target genes TNFα and IL-6. It was confirmed that CA alleviated inflammatory mediator-induced neuronal degeneration and reduced Aβ secretion by inhibiting the CEBPβ-NFκB signalling pathway in vitro. Sulfobutyl ether-beta-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD) was used as the encapsulation agent for the CA-loaded nanocarrier to overcome the poor water solubility and enhance the brain bioavailability of CA. The CA nanoparticles (NPs) had no obvious toxicity. It was demonstrated a feasible SBEβCD-based nanodelivery system targeting the brain. The data provide experimental evidence that CA-loaded NPs are potential therapeutic agents for AD treatment.
Wang, Y-B., Xiang, L., Bing, Y. et al. Inhibition of the CEBPβ-NFκB interaction by nanocarrier-packaged Carnosic acid ameliorates glia-mediated neuroinflammation and improves cognitive function in an Alzheimer’s disease model. Cell Death Dis 13, 318 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-04765-1